Magnetic resonance imaging of the head , painless , non-invasive and the most sensitive is currently examination of the brain and other cranial structures. MRI using magnetic fields and radio waves produces a series of detailed pictures that can even be combined into a 3-D images of the internal structures, as it allows to visually identify a breach of the brainstem and pituitary .
by MRI of the head can be found :
Your doctor may prescribe this type of diagnosis if the patient complains of dizziness, memory loss , for long headaches and blurred vision , weakness of the constant changes in thinking and behavior , if there are spasms . In addition, MRI of the head is prescribed for planning brain surgery , biopsy , treatment and control of disease .
functional MRI was performed to pinpoint the correct area of the brain for the study or the areas involved in speech functions and the movement of the body. At the same time during the passage of the diagnostic procedure the patient asked some problems : asking answer simple questions or ponazhimat thumb tips of the other .
You will need to get rid of things on the body that contain metal , including jewelry and sunglasses. Metal affect the ability of MRI machines to produce a clear image. Braces and dental fillings are usually not a problem .
Before the procedure you are required to survey, but rather has to be prepared in advance. So contraindications :
If you are diabetic or have kidney disease , then the use of the dye for MRI increases the risk of kidney damage . In this case, to decide yes or no to this diagnosis – to you .
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Neurosonography made a real revolution in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage received intrapartum .
A place of honor in the middle of the word ‘ neurosonography ‘ takes the Latin root ‘sonus’ -‘zvuk ‘ and Greek ‘ neuron ‘-‘ the nerve ‘ and ‘ grapho ‘ -‘pishu ‘, ‘ Selected ‘ modest stand at the edges. It is the ability of ultrasound to penetrate the soft tissue and reflected from the seals and irregularities formed the basis of this study . Ultrasound free passes filled with cerebrospinal fluid called ventricles and cisterns of the brain , almost as easily spread in the white matter and ‘ trips ‘ a more dense regions : gyrus and sulcus , clusters of gray matter – the basal ganglia , the vascular plexus of the ventricles and cerebellum , places hemorrhage bleeding ( ischemia ) of the brain and its cells necrosis ( necrosis ).
Like providing neurosonography invention , nature has left on the vault of the skull children 6 neokostenevshih areas – fontanelles , which, unlike the bones do not interfere with the passage of ultrasound. The signal is fed through the largest – the front (large) fontanelle is located at the junction of the temporal and parietal bones and usually overgrowing the beginning of the second year (the other is already closed for 2-3 th month ) . That’s why neurosonography – this study especially for newborns and infants .
Before neurosonography lubricate the skin over the fontanel special sound-conducting gel : after all, between her and the sensor should not be air , interrupting the path of the ultrasonic waves . The sensor emits a high-frequency signal in the 5000-7500 kHz such waves in a straight line is easier to collect and send the beam in the desired direction . The device captures the ‘ echo ‘ signal reflection of the structure of the brain. The result is a fan-shaped or, as doctors say, sectoral images of brain sections in two planes -‘profil ‘and’ full face ‘.
For the first time the possibility of the birth of brain damage due to compression and deformation of the baby’s head doctors talking 200 years ago. Much water has flowed since then , and today four out of a hundred infants are still born with birth trauma . Fortunately, now 95% of the ultrasound manage to ‘ declassify ‘ hidden brain injury in the first week of life , and doctors immediately provide him extra and targeted assistance . In this controlled trial is usually repeated on day 14 , and if the treatment was successful , baby discharged home under the supervision of a pediatrician and neurologist .
But luck still not all . Newborns with widespread bleeding in high-risk , whose condition is a concern , it is necessary to stay under the care of doctors. Most often it is the children who were born in the complicated delivery , premature experiencing oxygen starvation , extracted using a vacuum extractor . In the first 2 weeks of life, they repeated the study every 3 days , and then once a week for a month .
Neurosonography reveals :
Until recently, take pictures of the brain in these diseases was only possible with the help of computerized tomography : it under general anesthesia ( the slightest movement is able to lubricate the picture ) baby’s head X-rayed . When neurosonography not need any anesthetic or other special preparation of the child . The study lasted a quarter of an hour. Unlike X-ray ultrasound is completely harmless and, therefore , the study can be repeated as many times as necessary, to ensure improvement in the baby .
Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee joint
xIn many cases, the diseases of the musculoskeletal system appointed by magnetic resonance imaging . This survey method provides the most reliable information on the state of the skeleton , joints and other organs of the human body . MRI is used in various fields of medicine : trauma, surgery , orthopedics , rheumatology , and others .
Specialists prescribe MRI knee with different injuries and diseases . This method of diagnosis to determine the most effective treatment strategy , because obtaining high-quality images allows the knee to reveal the slightest damage .
Magnetic Resonance therapy is prescribed in case of such problems :
During the session, the MRI clearly visible quadriceps tendon and patella , which allows to identify both internal damage to tendons and complete their break. The presence of internal damage to the tendon proves the presence of chronic degenerative diseases , such as chronic patellar tendinitis . Proper diagnosis of the disease allows you to assign the optimal course of treatment to achieve maximum results.
If you suspect damage to the anterior cruciate ligament ( gap ) MRI of the knee allows for a 90 % correct diagnosis. In cases where the damage was the posterior cruciate ligament knee picture MRI to diagnose the pathology of 100% . In addition , the use of this kind of research is effective in examining the lateral ligaments of varying severity. MRI makes it possible to identify :
In the case of a meniscus tear knee MRI is mandatory , as it allows to identify the displacement of torn meniscus portion in the joint cavity , as well as violation of the integrity and degenerative changes in the cartilage .
Often people with injuries of the knee or other problems of the musculoskeletal system , was appointed to undergo an MRI , there are problems with the choice of a medical center or clinic . The solution to this problem can be found at http://mrtportal.ru/, which has information about the diagnostic and medical centers in Moscow , has the equipment and expertise for the procedure MRI .
What are these spots ?
Acne is a skin condition affects most teenagers and a significant number of adults . Some people are lucky and they are only in a few cases, while others may experience constant problems . The most vulnerable part of the body – is the face , back, chest and shoulders . Although acne is not by themselves bring to overall health any harm , living with them, especially if they are persistent , it becomes a problem for many years and can bring psychological discomfort , until the Depression , as if their owner was a chronic disease . How to get rid of pimples on the face for these people becomes a topical theme .
Acne vary in symptoms and signs , but almost all of them cause scars :
At the base of hair follicles located sebaceous gland damage occurs when inflammation and pus-filled .
sebaceous glands continuously produce sebum, which comes out through the pores continuously. If the dead skin cells stuck together adhesive mass sebum , clogged pores , closing the way out to the surface of the skin. But as the process does not stop all incoming sebum gland fills so formed comedones . The complete isolation from the oxygen activated pathogenic bacteria , which are still peacefully asleep . The body is struggling with this situation . The result of the destruction of microbes and neutralize the products of decay manifested by redness , suppuration , pain problem area .
Teenagers are particularly vulnerable to this process because of the biological features of the age . During puberty due to increased blood content of the hormones in the sebaceous glands produces large amounts of sebum. It plays an important role individual sensitivity sebaceous hair follicles are inherited from parents .
But there are factors . which increases the chance of acne at any age . So women noted that menstruation worsen the skin condition for one to two weeks before they begin. According to experts , this is due to hormonal changes in the period, as well as the possible gastronomic predilections mistress body . Stress and anxiety can also affect hormone levels due to the rush of adrenaline and cortisol , rewarding painful spots at the wrong time . Obstruction of the sebaceous glands are more active in very susceptible people using cosmetics that contain oil, as well as when in environmentally unfriendly airspace .
From acne , it is important to deliver carefully to insure the maximum of scars that are not especially adorned his face. Salicylic acid acne – proven method for treating acne home places . Well, if it is to levometsitin ( there is a pharmacy release form ) . Ideally – a regular beauty treatment by a specialist in the cabin. With self- squeezing pimples is a risk to send the infection in the deeper layers of the skin and thus cause whiter serious consequences in the form of swelling and redness .
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Make-up , so thoroughly imposed before a party or a working day , it demands the careful attention and periodic correction. And if you visit in the ladies’ room did not bring makeup , do not rush to take it with a friend . Lipstick , mascara , powder and other means can transmit viruses, bacteria and even fungi on the media . In addition, the use of old cosmetics can be dangerous. New contains substances that inhibit the growth of microorganisms , but over time they lose their effectiveness . So, for example , ink is completely safe only for three months after opening and initial use . After that, she accumulated a breeding ground for microorganisms .
In the case of lipstick it , in most cases , there is the risk of transmission of herpes viruses , which can manifest itself blisters on the lips . The virus does not remain for long in lipstick , but if the person who has the beginning of the disease used it , you can also catch the virus . Herpes is a fairly common , 90 % of the population has herpes virus, so say dermatologists . Why is dangerous cold on the lips tell you more specialized site of infections .
Few people know that if your girlfriend flu, mononucleosis (also known as the kissing disease ) and respiratory disease , caused by bacteria , tonsillitis , in this case, the disease can be borrowed by you through the common lipstick . It should match a couple of points: the patient got saliva on lipstick for a healthy microorganisms present ideal conditions for survival and reproduction .
Cosmetics , which is dedicated to eye rims may ultimately lead to a move in malicious microorganisms of the eyeball , resulting in blepharitis inflammation at the base of the eyelashes, the formation of cysts chalazion ( differently barley ) , conjunctivitis, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes . Ophthalmologists say trachoma, an inflammatory disease affecting the cornea and conjunctiva , is also caused by a bacterium that can be accessed through the make-up and also that a person can have herpes conjunctiva produced by the same virus that causes cold sores on the lips . And the most incredible thing , but the fact that people with genital herpes and gonorrhea can even infect other subject of sperm hit the patient in the eye of a healthy person , well, the bacteria can remain viable in makeup , regardless of its validity . Herpes is so aggressive and gonococcus bacteria that can affect the eyeball within 24 hours without treatment lead to ulcers on the cornea and loss of vision .
fungal infection on your face can bring a lot of trouble if apply foundation or compact powder with a brush or sponge someone else , because they are the remnants of keratin and body tissue , which can serve as a breeding ground for microorganisms. Before you try to imagine the exhibited samples of cosmetics stores think as you do not prove to you afterwards on the table from the surgeon . Even disinfecting public instruments makeup can not kill all viruses and bacteria .
At home, the brushes should be cleaned immediately after use. One option to wash them with a mild shampoo and allow to dry on a towel . Do not leave them in places with high humidity so as not to give a reason for the spread of micro-organisms .
Prevention of diseases that can be transmitted through the make-up :
Having straight teeth – it is not just decoration smile , but also a great benefit to the body .
The upper and lower row of teeth must fit properly when we bite down or combine them together. Malocclusion is a serious health issue of the teeth , and thus for the whole organism . For many people the way synchronized bite is not quite correct . If the bite is even just a little distracting from the line or is skewed , it can lead to a variety of problems including discomfort, pain , inability to chew or speak properly .
Dentists identified special technical term for the process of connecting the upper and lower jaw , or rather , contacts teeth with enhanced compression – ‘ occlusion ‘ . This concept involves more than just closing the teeth – all the chewing system : teeth, bones around the mouth , muscle and nerves that run in the area of the jaw and mouth .
Various problems of occlusion , or bite happen when the bite is not in the center . This may be the case in the presence of any number of several consecutive teeth size different from adjacent and under protruding teeth. It creates problems ‘ cross-bite ‘ , in which the load on the dentition get uneven . Teeth are receiving a large load can warp and crack , cause damage to the roots of the teeth , gums weaken , creating a wound – a haven for infection .
One of the most common diseases associated with occlusion of the jaw is a problem with that being the joint must be correctly aligned in its position . If dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint ( TMJ ), mouth opening and closing complicated. This disease can cause not only discomfort , but pain in the jaw muscles and chronic headaches. The disease may be accompanied by spazmicheskimi sensations in the muscles that support the jaw clicks , ear and facial pain .
Voltage jaw muscles , teeth grinding and other consequences of incorrect alignment of teeth associated with the position of dentition relative to each other . If a dental bite is wrong, it affects the nerves and muscles , and even creates some pain , for example , in the neck. To avoid such complications , you should always consult a dentist if there is any unexpected discomfort and any hint that your bite is off center . The dentist will check the bite using a special form and take steps to remedy the situation. With the proper functioning bite you feel better soon and will look much better smile .
Article presented dentistry Dental Way – http: //dentalway.ru
In game form acquaint children with the rules of dental care
The front teeth are called incisors. There are only eight : four top and bottom. Cutters are designed to bite ( cut ) small pieces of larger ones. These teeth are like blades .
right and left of the top and bottom incisors grow fangs . They pointed at the top and like mountain peaks . Canines in humans are only four . They usually pierce and tear small pieces of big .
remaining teeth called premolars and molars . They are designed for chewing , grinding food , which a man cuts , tears , or simply puts in his mouth .
As we know, human teeth are changed once in a lifetime . First time grow , or as they are called , dairy , and by the age of 12-14, they are gradually replaced by permanent or indigenous .
Not to confuse the name of your teeth and save time during a call , dentists have come up with for their rooms . You too can mentally ( do not write the same marker pen ! ), Renumber their teeth .
If some teeth were missing , do not worry . Firstly, if you are under 14 years old, you have a change of teeth , and the absence of some of them is quite normal. Secondly, the teeth grow in humans of up to 25 years. So what is still to come !